Learn about mastitis bovine, causesand info. What is bovine mastitis, diagnosis and control procedure and symptoms.
Bovine mastitis, what is it
Therebovine mastitisit's apathologyof the mammary glands caused mainly by bacteria. In the world scenario there is onedetailed classificationwhich is based on the detection of pathogenic organisms in milk, on the cellular content in milk and on the presence of alterations in the breast or in the milk itself. On a diagnostic level there is a difference betweenclinical mastitisischronic mastitis. The difference betweenchronic bovine mastitisisbovine mastitisclinic is detailed in the paragraph ofsymptoms.
Bovine mastitis, symptoms
THEsymptomsof theclinical mastitiscan be detected already with a visitvisual. The symptoms of bovine mastitis, related to milk, are:
- Presence of flakes
- Presence of fibrin stems
- Serous aspect
Breast symptoms can also be added to these milk changes:
- Volume increase
- Reduced or absent secretion
- Breast pain
Therechronic mastitisis defined as a 'breast infectionpersistent associated with certain symptoms such as the constant increase of the cellular content, the presence of nodules and progressive induration at the level of the mammary parenchyma (bovine udder tissue). Let's now analyze thecauseswhich trigger thebovine mastitis.
Bovine mastitis, causes
Therebovine mastitisit is caused by various pathogens, usually by bacteria. The main pathogens whichcausetheremastitisI'mStreptococcus agalactiae is Staphiloccocus aureus, the latter microorganism is the most frequently isolated contagious agent in the milk of Italian farms. There is a classification of the pathogenic bacteria they causebovine mastitis.
- Streptococcus agalactiae
- Staphilococcus aureus
- Corynaebacterium bovins
There are also environmental bacteria such as Gram-negative and streptococci and opportunistic bacteria such as coagulase-negative staphylococci.
Among the streptococci: Strptococcus uberis,
Strptococcus bovis, Strptococcus faecalis, Strptococcus dysgalactiae, Strptococcus canis… Among the Gram-negative bacteria we point out the very common Escherichia coli (bacterium present in the faeces) Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp., Citrobacter spp., Serratia spp, Proteus spp….
Although this classification may seem to youboring, it is important to locate the correct onetreatment. For each group of pathogens there are different prophylaxis with costs that can fluctuate.
In recent times, in Italian farms they are spreadingbovine mastitiscausedfrom a pathogen that does not belong to any of the groups mentioned above: the Prototeca zoopfii.
Not just bacteria, more rarely thebovine mastitisit can be caused by other microorganisms such as yeasts, molds and algae.
On a farm, the causes are the lack of a correct management plan (housing, milking, hygiene of the litter, peripartum ...) and hygiene in order to reduce the exposure of the teat to mastitis agents.
The chances of contractingbovine mastitisincrease in the presence ofbad hygieneand high humidity. On a farm, thecausesof thebovine mastitiscan be identified in several critical points. Here are the causes and tips for proper prevention.
- The constant procedure ofmilking.
Careful cleaning of the nipple with disposable material should be provided. An effective disinfectant should be applied after each milking.
- Livestock monitoring.
Prompt action should be taken to separate healthy from infected animals. For this purpose, it is necessary to initiate a control plan for all lactating animals. "Positive" animals must be isolated and milked last.
- Milking sequence that can reduce the risk of infection.
Healthy primiparas, healthy pluriparas, cows and heifers after calving ... finally positive animals.
- Farm hygiene.
The hygienic conditions of the farms are often not such as to guarantee the welfare of the livestock.
Bovine mastitis, diagnosis
Diagnosis of infections of contagious bovine mastitisit should be performed on milk samples taken aseptically from a single quart. The detection, even of a single colony of Streptococcus agalactiae or Staphylococcus aureus, is to be considered as a positive outcome of the infection.